The common manufacturing processes for the reinforcing steel used in the UK are described. Most reinforcing steel is produced by the electric arc furnace process using 100% scrap, with compositions being according to BS4449 and BS4482 to ensure suitable properties. Billets are usually produced by continuous casting, then hot rolled into bar. The necessary mechanical properties may be achieved by microalloying additions, or by the quench and self-tempering process, in which rapid water cooling of the surface of the bar creates a martensitic skin and an austenitic core. Rib profiles and quality assurance batch identification marks are created during the rolling process. Some reinforcing steels achieve the requisite mechanical properties by cold processing, usually cold rolling or cold drawing. 4 refs.