Chemical Composition, Mechanical Properties & Applications of Common Stainless Steels

Stirlings Australia Global Metals Distributor, is located in Perth, Western Australia, and is an stockist distributor of stainless steel long, flat and fluid products and facilitator of value-added services. Established in 1986 as Stirling Metals, we're recognised as a leading stockist for quality stainless steel and copper nickel products. We're committed to providing innovative product and supply solutions to cater to each of our customer's stainless steel needs.

Stirlings Australia's success has been a result of years of building strong relationships and expert understanding within the industries we service. The main industries we supply to are; Architecture, Building & Construction, Food and Beverage, General Fabrication/Engineering, Marine and Shipbuilding, Resources and Construction and Wine.

As a continually improving and customer focused company Stirlings Australia is driven by a well-integrated system of people, technology, and innovative business approaches. We strive to make doing business with us easy for every customer, near or far, big or small, new or old. We believe in employing strategies such as enabling, making and delivering on promises. Most of all, we believe in our vision, aiming to be a world leader in providing our customers with excellent value, top quality products & outstanding service.

Stirlings Australia also has a dedicated team of project consultants, specialising in project supply management. With expertise in customising supply requirements to meet specific project needs and deadlines, we also pride ourselves in delivering felxible, reliable and efficient service with cost-effectiveness in mind. Supported by an established network of international partners and logistics companies, we act as your company's stainless steel supply division, working with you to ensure the success of your project.

Chemical Composition of Common Stainless Steels

The grade and type of commonly used stainless steels with its composition is as follows:

Table 1. Commonly used stainless steels chemical composition

Grade

Type

UNS No. Related
Specification

C

Typical

Mn

Chemical

Ni

Composition

Cr

Mo

P

S

Si

Other

303

Austenitic

S30300

.15 Max

2.0 Max

8.5

18.0

0.6 Max

.20 Max

.15 Min

1.0 Max

304

Austenitic

S30400

.08 Max

2.0 Max

9.0

19.0

.045 Max

.3

1.0 Max

304L

Austenitic

S30403

.03 Max

2.0 Max

9.0

19.0

.045 Max

.03 Max

1.0 Max

316

Austenitic

S31600

0.8 Max

2.0 Max

12.0

17.0

2.5

.045

.03

1.0 Max

316L

Austenitic

S31603

.03 Max

2.0 Max

12.0

17.0

2.5

.045

.03

1.0 Max

316Ti

Austenitic

S31635

.08 Max

2.0 Max

11.0

17.0

2.5

.045

.03

1.0 Max

Ti 0.5

317L

Austenitic

S31703

.03 Max

2.0 Max

13.0

19.0

3.5

.045

.03 Max

1.0 Max

310

Austenitic

S31000

.25 Max

2.0 Max

20.0

25.0

.045

0.3 Max

1.5

321

Austenitic

S32100

.08 Max

2.0 Max

10.5

18.0

.045 Max

.03 Max

1.0 Max

Ti0.5 min

253MA

Austenitic

S30815

.10

0.8 Max

11.0

21.0

0.04

.03 Max

2 Max

N .18 Ce .15

904L

Austenitic

N08904

.02

2.0 Max

25.5

21.0

4.5

.045

.03

1 Max

Cu 1.5

420C

Martensitic

S42000

.15 Min

1.0 Max

2.0

16.0

.04 Max

.03 Max

1.0 Max

431

Martensitic

S43100

.20 Max

1.0 Max

2.0

16.0

.04 Max

.03 Max

1.0 Max

17-4 PH (630)

Martensitic

S17400

.07

1.0

4.0

16.0

.04

.03

1 Max

Cu 4 Nb + Ta .3

440C

Martensitic

S44004

1.0

1.0 Max

1.0

18.0

0.75 Max

.04 Max

.03 Max

1.0 Max

444

Ferritic

S44400

.02

1.0

1.0

18.5

2.0

.04

.03

1.0

Ti 0.4

3CR12

Ferritic

S1.4003

.03

1.5

1

11.5

.04

.03

1.0

Ti 4(C+N)

2205

Duplex

S31803

.03

2.0 Max

5.5

22.0

3.0

.03

.02

1.0

N 0.15

Mechanical Properties and Applications of Stainless Steels

The mechanical properties and applications of commonly used stainless steels are as follows:

Table 2. Mechanical properties of commonly used stainless steels and its applications

Typical Yield Strength
MPa
Min

Mechanical
UTS
MPa
Min

Properties
Hardness
BHN
Max

Properties
Hardness
Rb
Max

% Min Tensile Elongation
< 1.2mm

% Min Tensile Elongation
> 1.2mm

Condtion

Common Applications

240

585

160

84

50

50

Annealed

Free machining steel used where extensive machining is required. Corrosion resistance and weldability inferior to 302.

205

520

202

92

40

40

Annealed

General purpose steel with good corrosion resistance for most applications. Used for architecture, food processing, domestic sinks and tubs and deep drawing applications.

170

485

183

88

40

40

Annealed

Chemical plant and food processing equipment, where freedom from senitisation is required in plate.

205

520

219

95

40

40

Annealed

Most commonly used s/s main applications ie. marine, chemical, food, mining.

170

485

217

95

40

40

Annealed

A low carbon modification of 316 where heavy section weldments are required without the risk of intergranular corrosion

205

520

217

95

40

40

Annealed

A titanium stabilised version of 316. Excellent high temperature strength.

205

515

217

95

40

40

Annealed

For chemical plant. Has greater corrosion resistance than 316L notably with brines and halogen salts.

205

520

170

85

40

40

Annealed

Furnace parts and equipment. Resistant to temperatures 900ºC to 1100ºC.

205

520

217

95

40

40

Annealed

Heavy weldments in chemical and other industries. Suitable for heat resisting applications to 800ºC. Not suitable for bright polishing.

310

600

-

-

40

40

Annealed

Furnace parts and equipment. Resistant to temperatures up to 1150ºC.

-

-

-

-

40

40

Annealed

High resistance to: general corrosion in e.g. sulphuric and actic acids; crevice corrosion; stress corrosion cracking; pitting in chloride bearing solutions. Good weldabilty.

-

S20

192

92

12

Hardenable

Developed for high hardness after heat treatment. Used for cutting tools, surgical knives, etc.

965 Max

262

10

-

-

Hardenable

Used for pump shafts etc. Similar corrosion resistance to T302.

1000

1070

331

-

12

12

Solution Hardened

Main applications: pump shafts, marine boat shafts, valve stems. Similar corrosion resistance to type 304.

-

-

223

97

-

-

Hardenable

Capable of being hardened to 60 Rc. Highest hardness and abrasion resistance of all the stainless steels. Corrosion resistance similar to 410.

310

415

200

95

20

20

Annealed

Heat exchanger and hot water tanks, and in chloride containing waters. Not prone to chloride stress corrosion - superior resistance to pitting, crevice and intergranular corrosion. Possesses excellent deep drawing properties.

340

460

-

160

40

40

Annealed

Excellent wet abrasion resistance. Used in hoppers, bins, tanks etc.

450

620

290

32RC

25

25

Annealed

Superior corrosion resistance to 316L and 317L, combined with high strength. Excellent stress corrosion and abrasion resistance. Typically used in heat exchangers, gas scrubbers, fans, chemical tanks, flowlines, marine and refinery applications.

400

600

290

31RB

25

25

Annealed

Similar corrosion resistance to 316L. Higher yield strength, corrosion and stress-corrosion crackling resistance is required in marine, mining, chemical, food and power industries. Particularly useful in nitric acid.

Source: Stirlings Australia

For more information on this source please visit Stirlings Australia

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