A non-load bearing partition wall can be an ideal, cost effective and simple way of making the most of the available space in a room. For example, it can allow the construction of a separate shower area inside a bedroom or a secluded play or study area for kids. Non-load bearing walls can also be used to create room swithing buildings.
By definition, a non-load bearing partition is any wall that divides a space but does not carry any vertical load from above. Its sole purpose is to physically create a barrier to sight, noise (to a certain degree depending on specification) and heat.
Typical Timber Frame Construction
Non-load bearing walls can be constructed from all sorts of materials depending on the specification required. Building a timber frame of studwork and then fitting plasterboards to either sides of the framework is one of the simplest and most cost effective ways to construct a non-load bearing partition wall.
Conventional timber-framed methods use timber to build the framework, as timber frames are considered quick, easy and relatively inexpensive to assemble. Timber stud partitions can be built using timber and plasterboard and sometimes rockwool insulation.
To construct a basic timber stud partition wall you start by securely fixing a sole and head plate (piece of timber) to both the floor and ceiling along the length of the wall you require. Timber studs are then secured vertically along the length of the wall at approximately 600mm centres. .
Tools Required for Construction
Such a simple form of construction requires minimal specialist tools. However, the addition of power tools can make the process a lot quicker. The key tools required for building a non-load bearing timber stud partition are listed below:
- A plumb bob and line
- Spirit level
- Caulking tool
- Tape measure
The typical materials required for building a timber frame non-load bearing stud partition are listed below:
- Timber studs – Wood. Typically 4x2 timber
- Plaster / jointing compound
- Skirting Boards
- Sole plates (typically 6x2 timber)
- Acoustic sealant
- Paint / Wall paper
Undertaking the Work
A simple process to construct a non-load bearing stud partition is outlined below:
- Fix head plates and floor sole plate
- Fix the studs
- Fit the plasterboard
- Skim / Jointing compound
- Fit Skirting / Architrave / Coving
- Sand joints / acoustic seal wall-floor and wall-ceiling joints
- Decoration / Finishing touches
Building a timber stud non-load bearing partition is a relatively simple construction project. The trick is to plan ahead and prepare your materials prior to starting. For example, by pre-cutting all of your timber into a kit form of the wall laid out on the floor you can quickly construct the wall once you have started.
Fix Head Plates and Floor Sills
In a typical residential/domestic property you will need to fix the new wall to the joists both in the ceiling and on the floor, via the sole plates. In the ceiling, locate the position of joists at roughly the spots where you want to have the partition. After fixing the head plate, use a plumb bob and line and mark out the ceiling, walls and floor clearly. Nail a floor sill / sole plate with the same thickness as the wall to be used for the partition and the same length as the planned partition wall.
Fix the Studs
On the floor sill, mark the position of the vertical studs. One stud against the end wall and the remaining studs at 60 cm intervals along the length of the wall. Be careful when measuring and cutting all the studs as they should fit in tightly at both ends (top and bottom). Now nail or screw the studs in place onto the floor and ceiling timbers. Mark the floor and the wall at the stud centres so as to easily locate them while fixing the plasterboard.
Fit the Plasterboard
Now fix the plasterboard in a perfectly vertical position and make sure it touches the ceiling well by lifting it using wedges. Leave a small gap – minimum of 3 cm - from the floor to prevent any cold bridging or damp being sucked up from the floor into the plasterboard. A skirting board can then be utilized to fill any possible gaps at the bottom. Use screws to secure the boards by driving in the screws just beneath the surface. Be careful not to damage the plasterboard and make sure you securely fix the plasterboard to the vertical joists.
Once all the boards are fixed, all screw heads and joints should be made good by applying a filler or jointing compound. First apply a jointing tape over all joints in the plasterboard – It is easier to use self-adhesive joint tape. Apply a coat of jointing agent to the joints – liberally covering the jointing tape and gaps in the plasterboard. Then apply more jointing compound on the surface and use the caulking tool to finish the board surface until perfectly flat and smooth.
Avoid overfilling to prevent unwanted rubbing down after the filler is dried. However, to achieve a smooth finish, some rubbing down using a fine sandpaper is necessary. Cover all nail heads and fill up joints between the old wall and the new wall. The plasterboard can either be decorated directly, or you may wish to wet plaster the entire wall for a perfect finish.
Fitting a Door
It is fairly easy to fit doors into this non-load bearing partition wall. For this, just leave an opening with studs on both the sides and also a noggin on the top, while constructing the wall. Fit the interior door casing by securing them to the studs directly.
A new doorway within a stud wall can be constructed with the help of the process outlined below:
- Cutting through a block wall or brick.
- Fitting the door lining.
- Making an opening in a stud wall for a door aligned with one stud.
- Making an opening in a stud wall for a door centred between studs.
Cutting Through a Block Wall or Brick
- Check whether the wall is loadbearing or non-loadbearing.
- Mark the opening on one side of the wall and study the coursing of the blocks or bricks.
- The height and width of the opening should be measured in such a way that door fits into the opening without any difficulty.
- Cut the skirtings on the sides of the wall.
- Fix the lintel by supporting the wall and let it rest overnight allowing the mortar to set.
- The next day use a bolster chisel and club hammer to remove the individual bricks starting from below the lintel.
- Slice the wall using a masonry saw or an all-purpose saw if lightweight blocks were used to build the wall.
- To continue flooring the masonry should be chopped out from the bottom of the door.
Fitting the Door Lining
- Next focus on attaching the architrave, stop bead and door to a timber frame.
- Use timber with 25 mm thickness and see to it that the width of the timber is equal to the depth of the wall.
- Fix the lining to the sides of the opening using metal frame cramps or ties plastered into the slots on the brickwork.
- Wooden wedges should then be attached to the mortar joints following which the frame should be nailed to the wooden wedges.
Making an Opening in a Stud Wall for a Door Aligned with One Stud
- Locate the position of the studs to fix the position of the doorway and mark the position on the wall.
- The cladding should then be removed to expose the studs.
- For a door aligned with one stud you will have to cut the next two studs to match the level of the door head in order to create the new door opening.
- The height of the new door opening should be marked on the studs.
- The new door head should then be levelled and nailed between the full-height studs.
- The door opening’s width should be marked on the floor plate.
- Cut through the floor plate and then remove it.
- Cut a new stud and place it between the door head and the floor plate followed by skewing nails into the plate.
Making an Opening in a Stud Wall for a Door Centred Between Studs
- Make the opening and fit the new door head into it as mentioned above.
- Two new studs should then be cut and nailed between the head and the sill.
- Noggings should be placed between the original and new studs.
- Cut through the floor plate according to the width of the new door opening and then remove it.
- Use nail plasterboard panels to fill gaps between the new studs and the original wall cladding.
- All the joints should be taped and filled.
- The door lining should be cut and placed within the new door opening. Also add the door stops.
- Cover the edges of the doorframe by fitting the architraves followed by replacing of the skirting boards.
- Hang the new door.
- Mark the position of the lintel and use a bolster chisel and hammer to remove the plaster.
- Make a hole above, place a supporting needle and adjustable props or metal supports and cut the slot below to insert the lintel.
- Take three parts of sand and one part of cement and make a mix and apply this mix on the sides of the slot.
- Use the same mix to fill up the gaps and replace the loose bricks.
- Remove the needle and then fill the hole.