Editorial Feature

Types of Natural Stone Commonly Used In Construction

Natural stones are extracted from quarries or mines and can be reshaped and carved into a variety of unique shapes and sizes for applications in construction projects. The article focuses on the various varieties of natural stones frequently employed in the construction industry, along with a brief overview of their distinct advantages and drawbacks.

Image Credit: Marina Lohrbach/Shutterstock.com

Classification of Natural Stones

The most common varieties of natural stone utilized for construction purposes, worktops, and the majority of residential applications are broadly categorized into three separate groups called igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary stones.

Igneous rock, such as granite, is primarily composed of volcanic material. Magma beneath the earth's surface hardens as it combines with mineral vapors and liquids to form a variety of geological formations and hues.

The formation of metamorphic stones is brought mainly by a long time exposure to a combination of pressure, temperature, and mineral deposits. The most frequently utilized metamorphic natural stone is marble.

Small sedimentary particles aggregated to form rock strata over millions of years under intense heat and pressure result in the formation of sedimentary stones. Prime examples include limestone, sandstone, and travertine, among many others.

A Historical Perspective of Natural Stone

The practical applications of natural stone date back to the Palaeolithic age, when man first began to fashion instruments, items, and figures out of stone. Over the years, its use as the fundamental material for building structures such as defensive fortifications grew in significance.

Natural stone was the first and foremost priority for the majority of houses, while the remainder were primarily made of timber and earth. Over the centuries, men began to construct entire dwellings and urban structures out of natural stone.

Natural stone was the material of choice for housing structures, but marble was the material of choice for monumental structures. The Greeks and Romans were the most prolific users of it.

Since the Renaissance era, natural stone has been employed more seldom as a building material, but it has played a significant ornamental role in the sheathing of high-quality architectural structures and the fabrication of sculpted objects.

Marble – A Widely Utilized Natural Stone in Construction

Marble is found in the mountainous regions of numerous countries, including Canada, Italy, Germany, Spain, and the United States. Marble is a very durable and uniformly textured stone. It can be readily shaped and sculpted into various forms and then polished. Its sweeping lines, gorgeous colors, and high polish give it a distinctively elegant appearance. Marble is an attractive option for flooring, wall coverings, countertops, restroom walls, floors, cabinet tops, Jacuzzi platforms, and showers due to its aesthetic appeal.

The only drawback of utilizing marble for construction purposes is its susceptibility to scratching and chipping, which not only affects the aesthetic appeal but may also lead to structural damage.

Utilization of Granite

This coarse-grained stone is predominantly composed of quartz and feldspar. Crystallization gives granite its characteristic color flecks; the longer the molten rock has to settle, the larger the color granules become.

Granite is a popular building material primarily due to its resilience, endurance to the elements, and minimal maintenance requirements. It is a fantastic option for flooring, statues, roadways, crossings, and columns. However, it is quite expensive compared to other frequently used natural stones.

Advantages of Limestone

This porous sedimentary natural stone is made up of calcite and magnesium and is typically gray but is also available in other colors. From a geological standpoint, limestone is either formed in deeper marine water or through the evaporation of water during the formation of caves.

This rock is distinguished by the fact that its primary component, calcite, is formed primarily by the decomposition of organisms that produce shells and construct coral. As a building material, limestone is employed in the construction of walls, decorative ornamentation, and cladding.

Sandstone 

This durable and weather-resistant stone is frequently used for adorning exterior and internal walls, in addition to outdoor seating, pavement material, patio tables, and poolside coping.

This stone can be of a color similar to sand, but the most frequent hues are tan, brown, gray, white, red, and yellow. Sandstone with a significant quartz content may be pulverized to be employed as a source of silica for the production of glass.

Although sandstone can be easily processed and shaped, its durability is a major drawback. It is highly susceptible to weathering and erosion damage which is a major concern for construction purposes.

Uses of Slate in the Construction Industry

Slate is a metamorphic stone composed of compressed deposits such as clay and shale. Its pigmentation is less striking than that of granite or marble, but slate makes it simpler to develop surfaces with a consistent look in black, gray, pewter, and brown tones.

Slate is not a common material for countertops in restaurants. However, it has a lengthy history of use as roofing materials, carpeting, monuments, and masonry stones, among other applications.

Travertine as a Natural Stone in the Construction Industry

Travertine is a variety of limestone and one of the most widely used stones for interior and exterior wall coverings, internal and exterior pavement, sculptures, and borders. Additionally, travertine is frequently used for both floors and countertops.

This stone is prized for its reflective qualities as well as its resistance to blemishes and the elements. However, it is extremely reactive to acids, delicate and transparent, and more prone to heat than many other natural stones.

Onyx Stone as a Construction Material

Onyx can be translucent, can be backlit, is available in an assortment of colors, and has a contemporary appearance, making it one of the most attractive materials available.

Onyx is typically used for decorative purposes, as it is the most susceptible to chemical and mechanical damage and can be scratched, stained, and etched with greater ease. However, its decorative allure can produce stunning, unique, distinctive looks.

Market Perspective - Natural Stone

Researchdive has published a comprehensive report forecasting the market trends of natural stone till 2030. The global market for natural stone is anticipated to reach $60,367.30 million by 2030, up from $35,998.50 million in 2021, at a significant CAGR of 5.0%. It is anticipated that the diverse qualities of natural stones, such as their timeless allure and immense attractiveness, will attract enormous growth opportunities.

According to regional analysis, the natural stone market in the Asia-Pacific region generated $19,907,200.00 in revenue in 2021 and is expected to reach $35,170.00.00 by 2030. The granite sub-segment is projected to have a dominant market share and surpass $23,376.80 million by 2030, up from $13,074.5 million in 2021. The sub-segment of flooring is anticipated to have a dominant market share and will surmount $31,971.30 million by 2030, up from $18,351.00 million in 2021.

In short, each form of natural stone has its distinct benefits and drawbacks, and picking a kind of stone will hinge on factors such as finances, location, and preferred design. For long-lasting results, it is essential to hire a skilled and knowledgeable contractor to ensure that natural stone is installed and maintained properly.

More from AZoBuild: Smart Materials in Construction: Opportunities and Challenges

References and Further Reading

Bean, B., 2022. Types Of Natural Stone. [Online]
Available at: https://tshopinc.com/blog/2022/06/01/types-of-natural-stone/

Creative Brick Solution, 2022. Natural stone as a building material. [Online]
Available at: https://creativebricksolutions.com/2022/05/13/natural-stone-as-a-building-material/

Marmi Rossi, 2022. Natural Stone Between History and Modernism. [Online]
Available at: https://www.marmirossi.com/en/news/focus-materials/natural-stone-between-history-and-modernism

Research Dive, 2022. Natural Stone Market by Type (Granite, Marble, Limestone, Travertine, and Others), Application: Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2022-2030. [Online]
Available at: https://www.researchdive.com/8515/natural-stone-market

Stone Center, 2022. Top 10 Types of Stone Used in Construction. [Online]
Available at: https://stonecenters.com/blog/top-10-types-of-stone-used-in-construction

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.

Ibtisam Abbasi

Written by

Ibtisam Abbasi

Ibtisam graduated from the Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad with a B.S. in Aerospace Engineering. During his academic career, he has worked on several research projects and has successfully managed several co-curricular events such as the International World Space Week and the International Conference on Aerospace Engineering. Having won an English prose competition during his undergraduate degree, Ibtisam has always been keenly interested in research, writing, and editing. Soon after his graduation, he joined AzoNetwork as a freelancer to sharpen his skills. Ibtisam loves to travel, especially visiting the countryside. He has always been a sports fan and loves to watch tennis, soccer, and cricket. Born in Pakistan, Ibtisam one day hopes to travel all over the world.

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