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Research Report on Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in EVs

Research and Markets ( has announced the addition of the "Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning in EVs" report to their offering.

Until recently, finding the energy to heat or cool the cabin of a passenger car or other vehicle has been straight forward. Internal combustion engines (ICEs) were relatively inefficient, and since much of the energy loss appears as heat, this was used to warm the vehicles cabin. Heating was therefore a by-product of driving.

Equally, the energy required to drive the Air Conditioning (AC) and cool the cabin was also readily available, the main penalty being increased fuel consumption.

This situation changes when cars are powered by a modern ICE, an electric motor or a hybrid powertrain. These power plants are comparatively more efficient than earlier gasoline ICE units, and so there is less waste heat available to warm the interior of the vehicle. In EVs, the situation is particularly acute because little excess heat is generated by the motor. And preserving operational range is a high priority, the high energy requirement of AC is a problem.

To overcome this problem, OEMs fit EVs with an auxiliary heater. And as with vehicles having modern thermally efficient diesels, the technology of choice is currently a ceramic-based Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) heater. This is an understandable trend because PTC heaters have been used in the automotive sector for many years and fitting them in EVs is a natural extension of this application.

Key Topics Covered:


  • HVAC Energy Requirements
  • Existing Heat Sources
  • Overall Energy Consumption
  • Incidental Energy Loss


  • Better Thermal Insulation
  • More Efficient Auxiliary Equipment
  • Alternative Cabin Heating and Cooling Approaches
  • PTC heating


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